Employee Happiness: A Bibliometric Study using Scopus Database and Future Research Directions

Received: 27th April 2022 Review: 9th October 2022 Accepted: 10th January 2023


Purpose: Employee happiness has become one of the most prevalent business con- cern these days. Therefore, the present study attempts to perform bibliometric meth- odologies to evaluate the existing literature to characterize the fundamental frame- work of employee happiness.

Methodology: The study examines 253 documents after filtering and cleaning us- ing the Scopus database. The researcher illustrates the intellectual basis and research forefront of employee happiness literature via applying comprehensive bibliometric visualization technologies. By using statistical and network analysis, bibliometric analysis is carried out.

Findings: The study found that the business management literature mostly claimed the employee happiness term. However, it is defined much more narrowly in compari- son with other components of bibliometric analysis. In addition to addressing prior research, the findings provide the basis for future research on the topic.

Originality/Value: The findings may provide valuable information for researchers, academicians, journals and other interested people to know about the trends in em- ployee happiness.

Keywords: Bibliometric Analysis, Employee Happiness, Happiness at Workplace, Literature Review, Scopus Database, Visualization Analysis.

1.  Introduction

Employees are the most important resource of an organization. Employee hap- piness has recently become one of the most predominant business concerns and it is imperative to consider the impact of employee happiness on an organization


(Awada, Johar and Ismail, 2019). Although, employee happiness was not consid- ered important by the organization and was not included in their corporate strate- gy as a prime concern (Howard and Gould, 2000). However, happiness is crucial, particularly in today’s world (Rahmi, 2018). Employee happiness is a new notion recently embraced by several organizations (Kiran and Khurram, 2018). Happy em- ployees with their jobs are much more inclined to go above in delivering excellent services, being extra efficient and being highly devoted (Naudé et al., 2016; Rahmi, 2018). Happiness has a far deeper meaning. Greek word Eudaimonia (happiness) that is ‘eu’ (‘good’) and ‘daimon’ means (‘God Spirit’) (Gupta, 2012). The recurrence of pleasurable feelings characterizes a happy individual (Rego, Ribeiro, & Cunha, 2010). Lyubomirsky (2005) defines “Happiness is the experience of joy, contentment, combined with a sense that one’s life is good, meaningful and worthwhile”. In the modern environment, professional administrators and executives seek out happy employees at the workplace since they consider it will eventually help and benefit their organizations (Arora, 2020). Fisher (2010) defines Happiness at work “refers to pleasant judgments (positive attitudes) or pleasant experiences (positive feelings, moods, emotions, flow states) at work”.

Employee happiness is one of the interesting and hot topics (Bajaj and Krishnan, 2016). Researchers and practitioners have already started exploring this topic with other different aspects. No doubt, studies are available on employee happiness or workplace happiness with other variables (Fisher, 2010; Zhou and Qiu, 2013; Wok and Hashim, 2015; Bastos and Barsade, 2020). However, till date, no study has con- ducted a bibliometric analysis on this topic. It is also necessary to carry out biblio- metric analysis on this topic while relevant research on the topic is ongoing. In order to know about the prominent authors, journals and countries, bibliometric analysis is essential. Bibliometric processes, often known as “analysis,” have long been rec- ognized as scientific areas of expertise and are an important aspect of the study as- sessment process (Ellegaard and Wallin, 2015). Recent years have seen a tremendous increase in the popularity of bibliometric analysis in business research (Khan et al., 2021; Donthu, Kumar, Pattnaik, & Lim, 2021). The word bibliometric was first used by Pritchard (Pritchard, 1969), “hoping that the term would be used explicitly in all studies which seek to quantify the processes of written communication and would quickly gain acceptance in the field of information science” (Parra-González, 2020). Scientific data, particularly large volumes, can be explored and analysed using bib- liometric analysis (Donthu et al., 2021). The bibliometric analysis aids in gaining a long-term viewpoint of overall perspectives on the real problem (Donthu, Kumar, Pattnaik, & Pandey, 2021). The statistical and modeling quantitative study has a lot of impartiality and potential benefits (Wang et al., 2021). The bibliometric study es- tablished a rigorous approach for evaluating an article’s significance to intellectual growth (Chen and Ho, 2015; Chiu and Ho, 2007; Yang, Sun and Liu, 2017). To assess

the patterns, bibliometric variables such as research domains, document resources, publication outcomes, document publications, language source materials, country and institution division, leading authors, citation count and author phrases have been ap- plied often (Chiu and Ho, 2007; Chuang, Huang and Ho, 2007; Dong et al., 2012).

Bibliometrics is becoming an indispensable tool for evaluating and analysing scien- tific output, university collaboration, the impact of state-owned scientific financing on vast research effectiveness and educational efficacy, among many other consider- ations (Moral-Muñoz et al., 2020). Therefore, the proposed work consists of a biblio- metric analysis of the topic of “employee happiness”. There is already literature ac- cessible on the topic, but not from the standpoint of bibliometric analysis. The study will use several bibliometric indicators such as co-authorship analysis, co-occurrence analysis and citation analysis to conduct the bibliometric analysis. The research paper is divided into subheadings. The first subheading contains an introductory part, the second subheading contains a literature review, the third subheading contains research methodology, the fourth subheading contains results and discussions and the fifth sub- heading concludes the paper. To perform bibliometric analysis systematically, some study objectives and questions are formulated and a study is conducted.

2.  Literature Review based on Employee Happiness

To the extent of the researcher’s understanding, there is no bibliometric analysis study on the specific subject topic involving the phrase “employee happiness”. However, there is a substantial amount of literature on the topic of employee happiness. Much has been studied regarding job outcome happiness from both Western and Eastern viewpoints, but only a small amount of literature exists on happiness at the workplace (Al Suwaidi, Akmal and Alshami, 2021). Happiness and well-being at the workplace have become progressively prominent topics in academia and corporate settings over the last 2 decades as has optimistic thinking that aims to discover whatever creates working surroundings engaging and inspiring (Kun and Gadanecz, 2022). According to studies, job insecurity has a detrimental influence on happiness at the workplace as an elevated concept with all its components. This result must be re- garded significantly by companies that are attempting to create a sustainable robot- ized manufacturing setup (Stankeviˇci ¯ ut˙, Staniškien˙e and Ramanauskait˙e, 2021). Recent studies suggest that freedom, accessibility and security of the state play a part in WFH job participation. The second finding links WFH job engagement to happi- ness. Although the first result is significant from the viewpoint of an organization, the second goal is crucial for employees because it concerns overall cognitive well- being. When taken together, both findings suggest that when managed and structured adequately, the post-COVID WFH phase can assist both enterprises and personnel (Mehta, 2021). As in the literature, people are happier when they gain experiences

rather than tangible items; therefore, it makes sense that employees who provide these experiences can gain more happiness from their jobs (Bastos and Barsade, 2020).

Furthermore, physicians› opinions of professional happiness are unaffected by their gender. Finally, it is discovered that workplace happiness has a beneficial impact on physicians› citizenship behavior and that diverse administration practices can medi- ate the link between workplace happiness and healthcare professionals› citizenship behaviors (Mousa, Massoud and Ayoubi, 2020). Specifically, higher job demands reduced worker satisfaction, resulting in lower organizational commitment, produc- tivity outcomes and context-specific performance, as well as increased turnover in- tentions as well as deviant workplace behaviors (Thompson and Bruk-Lee, 2021). Gender diversity and organizational participation have no link in the literature. The researchers validated that gender diversity, workplace diversity and organizational inclusiveness can accurately predict workplace happiness (Mousa, 2021).

The research aims to determine the degree of employee satisfaction & job satisfac- tion. The results of this research showed that academic employees at the examined university are quite happy and satisfied with their jobs. Furthermore, the outcomes of this study revealed that employee happiness and job satisfaction have a strong and significant association (Thevanes and Jathurika, 2021). Work atmosphere, fam- ily atmosphere & living atmosphere, hereditary & character variables, interpersonal interactions, organizational factors, top management behaviour or mindset, spiritual practices & psychological comfort and approaches were all identified as recognized as main indicators of workplace happiness. Workers, supervisors and people manage- ment workers might use the findings of this research to build solutions that foster a happy culture (Gangwani, Alhalawany and Sheikh, 2020).

The available literature is based on employee happiness or the happiness of employ- ees at the workplace. Researchers have explored this topic with several other vari- ables, but no such study is based on a bibliometric analysis of the topic. Therefore, the present study performs bibliometric analysis based on various available bibliometric indicators.

2.1  Research Questions

The study aims to perform research on the topic of employee happiness and answers the following questions:

  • Who are the most active researchers on employee happiness?
    • What is the most popular journal on the topic of employee happiness?
    • Which countries and organizations work on the topic of employee happiness?
  • What are the most occurred keywords on the topic of employee happiness?

2.2  Objectives of the Study

This study seeks to fulfil the following research objectives:

  • To gain a better understanding of employee happiness literature.
    • To identify various trends in employee happiness research.

3.  Research Methodology

Till now, scholars typically used qualitative, quantitative or mixed-method approach- es to assessing the literature and determining what studies have been conducted on employee happiness. Employee happiness is now the subject of literature. So far, no attempt has been made to convey the significance of the research performed in this area. Inside the style of a methodology, Figure 1 displays the stages included in achieving the research purpose of this work. This paper aims to arrange the literature on employee happiness. Bibliometric analysis has been chosen as the best way to do it among all the options. A bibliographic analysis is preferred for its simplicity since it allows for a “static, transparent and systematic picture of the research” (Singh & Dhir, 2019). It is a form of systemic assessment that aids in the survey of research themes, identifying the most influential authors, nations, organizations and journal articles for a particular subject. It is deriving the numerous citation trends over the period and thus empowering one with the assimilation of varied thought processes on the subject matter provided by researchers over time (Sun & Grimes, 2016).

3.1  Database Selection

For this research, the researcher exclusively used data from the Scopus database. Scopus is employed for a variety of purposes, including a) Its broad reach over most academic fields, including its usability and visualization features, allowing for suit- able data evaluation (Baas et al., 2020; Visser, Eck and Waltman; 2021) b) its use in several bibliometric studies (Zhu and Liu, 2020; Pico-Saltos, 2021) c) It also provides gives information for the “QS World University Rankings,” the most widely used ranking by “Latin American Universities” to determine their position in the country and around the globe (Moed, 2017; Torres-Samue et al., 2018).

3.2  Data Extraction

The initial round of search is done within “Article Title, Abstract, Keywords” and 391 document results were generated on 03/03/2022.

The following Boolean were used to narrow down the search results:

TITLE-ABS-KEY ( “Employee Happiness” OR “Happiness at Workplace” OR “Hap- py Workers” OR “Happy Employees” OR “Workplace Happiness” OR “Happi- ness at Work” OR   “Work Happiness” ) AND ( LIMIT-TO ( PUBSTAGE , “fi- nal” ) ) AND ( LIMIT-TO ( DOCTYPE , “ar” ) ) AND ( LIMIT-TO ( LANGUAGE

, “English” ) ) AND ( LIMIT-TO ( SRCTYPE , “j” ) )

After using the above Boolean where the Title of search is limited to “Employee Happiness” or “Happiness at Workplace” or “Happy Workers”, “Happy Employ- ees”, “Workplace Happiness”, “Happiness at Work”, “Work Happiness” Publica- tion stage “Final”, Document Type “Articles”, Language “English” and Source Type “Journal” was used and 256 document results were generated. These 256 document results are used to perform bibliometric analysis. After generating the results, the data is exported in an excel file. In the excel file data is cleaned out and after cleaning 253 document results are obtained. Therefore, the analysis is performed on 253 documents. The database results are from the year 1959 to the year 2022.

3.3  Methods and Tools for Evaluation

In terms of data analysis software, VOSviewer and MS-Excel are being used. The researcher analysed and represented bibliometric data using the Scopus database and VOSviewer (Version 1.6.18). VOSviewer has been incorporated with co-authorship, citation analysis and co-occurrence tools for the study.

3.4  Data Cleaning

Data screening and cleaning were completed before beginning the network analysis. MS-Excel program is used to complete the task. Duplicate data, repeated data input, irrelevant information, erroneous data, invalid files, incomplete information and so on are all deleted using various methods and procedures in data cleaning. To acquire more accurate and trustable findings, data cleaning is important. Several tools in MS- Excel are utilized to clean data, including filtering, classifying and deleting data du- plication and data is cleaned out using these tools.

4.  Results and Discussion

4.1 Statistical Analysis: Using Scopus statistical analysis, a researcher can find out

the total number of documents published on a certain topic, the total number of au- thors contributing to the topic and the total number of documents per country.

Using Scopus Dataset as a support, the following analysis has been carried out:

Fig. 2 shows per year documents published by Scopus on the searched topic. From 1959 to 2019, articles published per year increased but in 2020 and 2021, the articles published by researchers are less than the previous years. Researchers recently recog- nised this particular topic and they started exploring the topic.

Fig. 3 shows the document count by authors. It is shown that Salas-Vallina, A. is the author who has published most of the documents (12), followed by Bakker, A.B. (8 documents), followed by Alegre, J. (7 documents).

Similarly, Fig. 4 depicts documents sorted by most contributing countries. The most con- tributing country is the United States with a higher document count (54 documents), fol- lowed by India and Spain (24 documents each), followed by Malaysia (22 documents).

Fig. 5 delineates documents by subject area. Most of the documents on the topic are published in the Business Management area (27.6%), followed by Social Sciences (17.2%), Psychology (10.2%) and Medicine (9.5%). This entire statistical analysis decides that this particular topic is emerging day by day. It is more relevant to the Business Management area for research.

4.2 Network Analysis: Researchers have adopted bibliometric network analysis be- cause it is a good way to study a vast amount of data with advanced techniques (Furst- enau et , 2021). As part of bibliometric analysis, network analysis can be conducted with several other types of analysis such as co-authorship, co-occurrence and citation analysis.

An analysis of databases using Scopus Database and VOSviewer has been done as follows:

  • 4.2.1 Co-authorship Analysis: Co-authorship analysis can be used to understand where an author aligns into a collaboration network and how much each author con- tributed to the research outcome (Glänzel, 2014). Units of analysis for co-authorship are authors, organizations and countries.
  • Author-based Co-authorship AnalysisThe researcher has used authors as a component of co-authorship analysis and in addition to 2 documents per author and 2 citations per author, are the minimum limit set for co-authorship Out of 553 authors, 43 meet this threshold. Using the full counting method, the analysis is con- ducted. Table 1 shows Salas-vallina A. is the most productive and co-authored author, has a high citation of papers and has the highest number of links.

Table: 1 Author-based Co-authorship Analysis

AuthorsDocumentsCitationsTotal Link Strength
Salas-vallina A.1217815
Alegre J.713712
Bakker A. B.61647
Fernández R.2555
López-cabrales á.2635

Salas-Vallina A. is the most productive and leading author in terms of documents produced, overall link strength and citations within a co-authorship study. In this par- ticular field, Salas-Vallina A. Author has collaborated with almost 15 other authors.

  • Organization-based Co-authorship Analysis: An analysis of this type shows the number of organizations that have collaborated with each other. The researcher has used organizations as a component of authorship analysis, with a minimum number of documents per organization of 2 and a minimum number of citations per organization of Out of the 437 organizations, 11 fully converge the threshold limit. Table 2 shows ‘Department of Business Management, Uni- versity of Valencia, Valencia, Spain’ is leading in terms of collaboration with other organizations.

Table: 2 Organization-based Co-authorship Analysis

OrganizationsDocumentsCitationsTotal LinkStrength
“Department of Business Management,University of Valencia, Valencia, Spain”71313
“Esic Business and Marketing School,Valencia, Spain”2382
“Department of Social Psychology, Uni-versity of Valencia, Valencia, Spain”271
“Cardiff University, United Kingdom”2180

There need to be more relationships among major organizations concerning research on the topic. However, 3 key organizations have a small connection with other orga- nizations. Therefore, major organizations must research the topic collectively.

  • Country-based Co-authorship Analysis: In this type of analysis, an analysis is done on how many countries have collaborated with other countries. The researcher has used countries to analyse co-authorship and more than 4 publications per coun-

try and 4 citations per country have been set as the minimum limit for co-authorship analysis. Out of 58 authors, 23 achieve this limit. In Table 3, with the highest number of citations, documents and total link strength, the United States has been the most active country in co-authorship with other countries.

Table: 3 Country-based Co-authorship Analysis

CountryDocumentsCitationsTotal Link Strength
United States53265211
According to Fig. 6, the United States has the strongest linkage with most countries in terms of research on the subject. As a result, the United States is the most influential country addressing the topic. Even though countries like the Netherlands and Spain have a high number of publications, their links to other countries could be stronger than countries like the United States. Thus, authors from different countries should collaborate with foreign authors in research.
4.2.2 Co-occurrence Analysis: A bibliometric analysis visualization technique shows the commonly employed and highly correlated phrases or words identified in articles relevant to a subject of study. Analysis of the co-occurrences of all keywords: The researcher employed all keywords as a unit of co-occurrence analysis, with the minimum number of appear- ances of a keyword being 5. Only 71 of the 1177 keywords match the criterion. The analysis is carried out using the full counting In published materials, the key- word happiness, workplace and happiness at work have appeared most of the time, as seen in Fig 7. Analysis of the co-occurrences of author keywords: The researcher employed author keywords as a unit of co-occurrence analysis, with the minimum number of appearances of a keyword being 5. Only 29 of the 717 keywords match the criterion. The analysis is carried out using the full counting method. In published documents, the keyword happiness at the workplace, happiness and job satisfaction has appeared the majority of the time, as seen in Fig 8

4.2.3 Citation Analysis: In the research strategy and system, citations are frequently used as quality metrics. Citations are commonly thought to indicate the study’s rel- evance or excellence (Aksnes, Langfeldt and Wouters, 2019). Citation analysis is a bib- liometric method for tracing the connections among works and their primary resources and scholars based on citation trends in the publications (Hussain and Swain, 2011).

4.2..3.1 Document-based Citation Analysis: As part of the citation analysis, the re- searcher has used the number of citations per document as a component of analysis, where a minimum of 10 citations per document is used. Out of the 252 documents analysed, 82 met the threshold As shown in Table 4, Fisher C. D. (2010), titled ‘Happiness at Work’, is the most cited document with high link strength.

DocumentsCitationsLinksTitle of DocumentJournal
Fisher C. D. (2010)37225“Happiness at Work”“International Journal of Man- agement Re-views”
Cropanzano R. (2001)25810“When a “happy” worker is really a “productive” worker: A review and further refinement of the happy-productive workerthesis”“Consulting Psy- chology Journal: Practice and Research”
Salas-vallina A. (2017b)459“On the road to happiness at work (HAW): Transfor- mational leadership and organizational learning ca- pability as drivers of HAWin a healthcare context”“Personnel Re- view”
De waal A. (2018)118“Increasing organizational attractiveness: The role of the HPO and happiness atwork frameworks”“Journal of Orga- nizational Effec- tiveness: Peopleand Performance”
Zelenski J.M. (2008)1598“The Happy-ProductiveWorker Thesis Revisited”“Journal of Hap-piness Studies”

It is evident that the document named ‘Happiness at Work’ by Fisher C. D. (2010) carries the highest number of citations and links. This indicates that the document has good value concerning the research topic. Source-based Citation Analysis: As part of the citation analysis, the researcher used sources along with the minimal number of documents of a source being 3 and the minimal number of citations of the source being 3. Out of 180 sources, 17 conform to the threshold.

Table: 5 Source-based Citation Analysis

SourceDocumentsCitationsTotal Link Strength
Journal of Happiness Studies321010
Personnel Review416310
Evidence-based HRM3646
Employee Relations5845
Sustainability (Switzerland)7214
Frontiers in Psychology7393
International Journal of Business Excellence4123
Journal of Managerial Psychology31243
International Journal of Environmen- tal Research and Public Health5512
Journal of Business Ethics32122
Applied Research in Quality of Life4121
Cogent Business and Management4121
Human Relations53541
Journal of Business Research3981
Clinical Nuclear Medicine570
Human Resource Management Inter- national Digest330
International Journal of Recent Tech- nology and Engineering340

Table 5 shows that the most cited source is ‘Human Relations’ with 354 citations but according to high link strength, ‘Journal of Happiness Studies’ is the most cited source. This analysis shows that documents produced by the source ‘Human Re- source’ are mostly cited by the researchers in their research. However, regarding high link strength, researchers mostly cite the ‘Journal of Happiness Studies’.

  • Author-based Citation Analysis: To perform citation analysis, the researcher has chosen authors as part of analysis, along with the minimal number of documents of an author being 3 and citations per author being 3. Among 553 authors, 11 meet the threshold limit. Table 6 shows that the most cited author is Rego A. with the highest number of citations (271) but the total link strength of the author is less than Salas- vallina A. Here, the researcher is performing citation analysis using authors; there- fore, the most cited author is Rego A.

Table: 6 Author-based Citation Analysis

AuthorDocumentsCitationsTotal Link Strength
Salas-vallina A.1217828
Alegre J.713727
Bani-melhem S.3928
Singh S.3455
Bednárová-gibová K.444
Rego A.42712
Bakker A.B.61640
Harolds J.A.570
Isa K.330
Oerlemans W.G.M.3810
Peiró J.M.3410

The most cited author is Rego A. because in citation analysis, interpretation is made with the highest citations per author, not with total link strength. Researchers find Rego A. is the most productive cited author by other researchers most of the time in their studies.

  • Country-based Citation Analysis: The researcher has used countries as com- ponents of citation analysis, along with a minimum number of documents 3 and cita- tions 3 per country. Out of 58 countries, 26 meet the threshold limit. Table 7 shows that the United States is the most cited country by the researchers, followed by Aus- tralia, Portugal and United Kingdom.

Table: 7 Country-based Citation Analysis

United States532652
United Kingdom12278

It can be interpreted that the US is the most influential country having the higher num- ber of citations. Researchers find that research published by US authors is construc- tive and cite them in their studies. The next cited country is Australia with 670 total citations on the topic, followed by Portugal with 306 citations.

5.  Discussions and Conclusion

After analysing the study’s findings with VOSviewer and evaluating them in the pre- vious section, it is determined that statistical analysis and data network assessment aid in the impactful performance of the bibliometric analysis. As per the statistical analysis, the particular topic is not much explored. There is still a need to work on this employee happiness field because when the researcher performs the first search with the keyword ‘employee happiness,’ then very few documents are searched out. In the second round, the researcher searched employee engagement with other simi- lar keywords such as workplace happiness, happiness at work and worker happiness etc. then only the researcher was able to get an appropriate number of documents to perform bibliometric analysis. It was found that business management literature pri- marily used the term employee happiness.

Network analysis among bibliometrics can be performed using several other com- ponents of analysis. Therefore, the present study was carried out using three compo- nents of bibliometrics such as co-authorship, co-occurrence and citation analysis. In co-authorship analysis, the most prominent and co-authored author is Salas-vallina

A. As per organization co-authorship analysis, there is a lack of connection among the organizations working in this field of research. There is still much need to work on the topic by different organizations. Therefore, major organizations must research the topic collectively. Since the United States collaborates with most countries on the subject, it is the most influential nation addressing the issue. In co-occurrence analysis, the researcher employed all keywords and author keywords as a unit of co-occurrence analysis. Among all keywords, happiness is the keyword frequently occurring in the documents, whereas, in the author keyword, workplace happiness keyword occurs mostly. This depicts that the documents are relevant to the topic and have a significant contribution. Besides the above analysis, citation analysis is also performed as a unit of analysis. Fisher C. D. (2010) with the document titled ‘Happi- ness at Work’, is the most cited document with high link strength. The analysis shows that documents produced by the source ‘Human Resource’ are mostly cited by the researchers in their research. In author-based citation analysis, Rego A. is the most productive cited author by other researchers. Similarly, the US is the most influential country having a higher number of citations.

6.  Limitations of the Study

This study has several drawbacks and is not free from certain limitations. Its contribu- tion may be restricted because it is the only study to do bibliometric analysis, but it does present findings and paths for future research. Second, this research found publi- cations containing a limited number of keywords relevant to employee happiness. As a result, there is a chance the researcher omitted a significant keyword connected to the topic. Third, the analysis relies solely on the Scopus dataset. However, a variety of other significant databases devoted to employee happiness generate papers that are indexed by other reputed indexes. These publications should be read to ensure that to have a comprehensive and thorough understanding of the subject. Fourth, this study only looked at journal articles; future research should also look at books, theses & conference papers.

7.  Future Scope of the Study

After completing the analysis, it is clear that there is still a need for future research in this area. The relevance of happiness among employees has been recognised by orga- nizations recently; therefore, there is limited literature available on this topic. There is still more work needed in this area with several other variables. The study found that active organizations in the field of employee happiness should collaborate more with other county organizations. For improved research results, there is a need to collabo- rate with other countries. Like in previous research fields, empirical research can be used to investigate relationships between various factors. More research is required to do a bibliometric analysis with several additional factors.

Rajwinder Kaur1, Research Scholar, Chandigarh University, Gharuan (Mohali), Punjab, India1 Email: bimbrarajwinder@gmail.com, Postal Address: Chandigarh Uni- versity, Gharuan (Mohali), Punjab, India

ORCID ID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-3494-8054

Dr. Gagandeep Kaur2, Associate Professor, Chandigarh University, Gharuan (Moh- ali), Punjab, India, Email: gagandeep.e3996@cumail.in, Postal Address: Chandigarh University, Gharuan (Mohali), Punjab, India

ORCID ID: https://orcid.org/0000-0001-8729-2402

Dr. Gagandeep Kaur3


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