Received: 17th August 2021 | Review: 12th April 2022 | Accepted: 1st September 2022
Volume 30, Issue-4, July 2022
Purpose– The paper aims to develop and validate a scale measuring interpersonal relationships among employees of an organization, notably the service sector.
Design/methodology/approach– A sample of 250 employees in the first stage and 421 employees in the second stage were selected and purposive sampling was employed to validate the scale. The scale was refined using exploratory factor analysis in the first stage and in the second stage, it was refined through measurement model evaluation in PLS-SEM.
Findings– The results reveal that the scale cleared all the psychometric properties required for confirming the application of the tool at second order in a remarkable manner, where Cronbach’s alpha value of the scale was 0.934 and composite reliability ranged between 0.893 to 0.937.
Practical implications– Current literature is flooded with articles describing marital relations, social relations in general and the relationship between leader and member in an organization, but the relationship between employees within an organization has received scanty attention and particularly in the service sector.
Originality/value– Current research contributes in a theoretical and practical manner in understanding interpersonal relationships and some of its attributes. It mainly contributes to developing and validating the scale at second order in the service sector, which evaluates interpersonal regard, mutual acceptance and upliftment, mutual trust and workplace harmony.
Key Words:-Interpersonal Relationship, Scale Development, Scale Validation, Measurement Scale, Exploratory Factor Analysis, Confirmatory Factor Analysis, PLS-SEM
Adim, C. V., & David, G. O. (2020). Recognition-based reward and workplace harmony in manufacturing companies in Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria. European Journal of Human Resource, 4(2), 1-11.
Advisory, Conciliation and Arbitration Service (2021, May 11) New Acas report estimates workplace conflict costs employers nearly £30 billion a year. Retrieved from https://www. acas.org.uk/new-acas-report-estimates-workplace-conflict-costs-employers-nearly-30- billion-a-year
Akter, S., Fosso Wamba, S., & Dewan, S. (2017). Why PLS-SEM is suitable for complex modelling? An empirical illustration in big data analytics quality. Production Planning & Control, 28(11-12), 1011-1021.
Albu, G. (2017). Education, human dignity, interpersonal respect and self-respect. Journal of Innovation in Psychology, Education and Didactics, 21(1), 21-34.
Bernerth, J. B., Armenakis, A. A., Feild, H. S., Giles, W. F., & Walker, H. J. (2007). Leader–member social exchange (LMSX): Development and validation of a scale. Journal of Organizational Behavior: The International Journal of Industrial, Occupational and Organizational Psychology and Behavior, 28(8), 979-1003.
Bouckenooghe, D., De Clercq, D., & Deprez, J. (2014). Interpersonal justice, relational conflict, and commitment to change: The moderating role of social interaction. Applied Psychology, 63(3), 509-540.
Brown, N. W., & Sullivan, J. (1979). Validation of the Interpersonal Relationship Rating
Scale. Group & Organization Studies, 4(2), 220-228.
Carmeli, A., Brueller, D., & Dutton, J. E. (2009). Learning behaviours in the workplace: The role of high‐quality interpersonal relationships and psychological safety. Systems Research and Behavioral Science: The Official Journal of the International Federation for Systems Research, 26(1), 81-98.
Carmines, E. G., & Zeller, R. A. (1979). Reliability and validity assessment. Sage publications. Chen, C. C., Ünal, A. F., Leung, K., & Xin, K. R. (2016). Group harmony in the workplace:
Conception, measurement, and validation. Asia Pacific Journal of Management, 33(4), 903-934.
Chin, T. (2015). Harmony and organizational citizenship behavior in Chinese organizations.
The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 26(8), 1110-1129.
Chonody, J. M., Gabb, J., Killian, M., & Dunk-West, P. (2018). Measuring relationship quality in an international study: Exploratory and confirmatory factor validity. Research on Social Work Practice, 28(8), 920-930.
Consiglio, C. (2014). Interpersonal strain at work: a new burnout facet relevant for the health
of hospital staff. Burnout Research, 1(2), 69-75.
Costello, A. B., & Osborne, J. (2005). Best practices in exploratory factor analysis: Four recommendations for getting the most from your analysis. Practical Assessment, Research, and Evaluation, 10(1), 7.
Dant, R. P., Weaven, S. K., & Baker, B. L. (2013). Influence of personality traits on perceived relationship quality within a franchisee‐franchisor context. European Journal of Marketing, 47(1/2), 279–302.
De Wit, F. R., Greer, L. L., & Jehn, K. A. (2012). The paradox of intragroup conflict: a meta-
analysis. Journal of Applied Psychology, 97(2), 360.
Dearing, K. S., & Steadman, S. (2011). The Psychometric Properties of the Self‐Assessment
of the Interpersonal Relationship Scale. Perspectives in Psychiatric Care, 47(4), 176-182.
Eldor, L. (2018). Public service sector: The compassionate workplace—The effect of compassion and stress on employee engagement, burnout, and performance. Journal of Public Administration Research and Theory, 28(1), 86-103.
Fletcher, G. J., Simpson, J. A., & Thomas, G. (2000). The measurement of perceived relationship quality components: A confirmatory factor analytic approach. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 26(3), 340-354.
Fornell, C., & Larcker, D. F. (1981). Evaluating structural equation models with unobservable
variables and measurement error. Journal of Marketing Research, 18(1), 39-50.
Garthoeffner, J. L., Henry, C. S., & Robinson, L. C. (1993). The modified interpersonal relationship scale: reliability and validity. Psychological Reports, 73(3_part_1), 995-1004.
Gordon, A. M., Impett, E. A., Kogan, A., Oveis, C., & Keltner, D. (2012). To have and to hold: Gratitude promotes relationship maintenance in intimate bonds. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology,103, 257-274.
Grace, D., King, C., & Iacono, J. L. (2017). Workplace relationship cohesion: an internal
customers’ perspective. Journal of Service Theory and Practice, 27(1), 129-150.
Hair, J.F., Black, W.C., Babin, B.J., Anderson, R.E. and Tatham, R.L. (2006). Multivariate
Data Analysis. New Jersey: Pearson.
Hair, J.F., Black, W., Babin, B., & Anderson, R.E. (2010). Multivariate data analysis: A
globalperspective. New Jersey: Pearson.
Hair, J.F., Hult, G.T.M., Ringle, C.M. and Sarstedt, M. (2017). A Primer on Partial Least
SquaresStructural Equation Modeling (PLS-SEM). Los Angeles: Sage.
Hardin, R. (2002). Trust and trustworthiness. New York: Russell Sage Foundation. Hargreaves, A. (2001). The emotional geographies of teachers’ relations with colleagues.
International Journal of Educational Research, 35(5), 503-527.
Hendrick, S. S., Hendrick, C., & Logue, E. M. (2010). Respect and the family. Journal of
Family Theory & Review, 2(2), 126-136.
Henseler, J., Ringle, C. M., & Sarstedt, M. (2015). A new criterion for assessing discriminant validity in variance-based structural equation modeling. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 43(1), 115-135.
Jarvis, C. B., MacKenzie, S. B., & Podsakoff, P. M. (2003). A critical review of construct indicators and measurement model misspecification in marketing and consumer research. Journal of Consumer Research, 30(2), 199-218.
Johnson, S., & Krijtenburg, F. (2015). Upliftment’friends and finance: Everyday concepts and practices of resource exchange underpinning mobile money adaption in Kenya, Bath Papers in International Development and Wellbeing, No. 41, University of Bath, Centre for Development Studies (CDS), Bath.
Kacmar, K. M., Bachrach, D. G., Harris, K. J., & Noble, D. (2012). Exploring the role of supervisor trust in the associations between multiple sources of relationship conflict and organizational citizenship behavior. The Leadership Quarterly, 23(1), 43-54.
Kanawattanachai, P., & Yoo, Y. (2002). Dynamic nature of trust in virtual teams. The Journal of Strategic Information Systems, 11(3-4), 187-213.
Kim, H., & Qu, H. (2020). The mediating roles of gratitude and obligation to link employees’ social exchange relationships and prosocial behavior. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, 32(2), 644–664.
Kline, R. B. (1998). Principles and Practice of Structural Equation Modeling. New York:
Kolawole, I. O. (2019). Effects of Industrial Conflicts on Employees’ Performance in a Private Sector Organisation (A case of Ikeja Electricity Distribution Company Plc). European Journal of Business and Management, 11(24), 117-125
Konishi, E., Yahiro, M., Nakajima, N., & Ono, M. (2009). The Japanese value of harmony
and nursing ethics. Nursing Ethics, 16(5), 625-636.
Korsakienė, R., Stankevičienė, A., Šimelytė, A., & Talačkienė, M. (2015). Factors driving turnover and retention of information technology professionals. Journal of Business Economics and Management, 16(1), 1-17.
Kripakumar, KS. (2015). Interpersonal relations and competence in public sector enterprises in Kerala A study with reference to KTDC (Doctoral thesis, Mahatma Gandhi University, Kerela). Retrieved from http://hdl.handle.net/10603/194570
Liden, R. C., & Maslyn, J. M. (1998). Multidimensionality of leader-member exchange: An
empirical assessment through scale development. Journal of Management, 24(1), 43-72.
Lloret-Segura, S., Ferreres-Traver, A., Hernández-Baeza, A., & Tomás-Marco, I. (2014). El análisis factorial exploratorio de los ítems: una guía práctica, revisada y actualizada. Anales de Psicología/Annals of Psychology, 30(3), 1151-1169.
Loomis, J. L. (1959). Communication, the development of trust, and cooperative behavior.
Human Relations, 12(4), 305-315.
Losada-Otálora, M., Peña-García, N., & Sánchez, I. D. (2020). Interpersonal conflict at work and knowledge hiding in service organizations: the mediator role of employee well-being. International Journal of Quality and Service Sciences, 13, 63–90.
Moye, M. J., Henkin, A. B., & Egley, R. J. (2005). Teacher-principal relationships: exploring linkages between empowerment and interpersonal trust. Journal of Educational Administration, 43(3), 260-277.
National Business Research Institute (2019). The Truth about Job Satisfaction and Friendships at Work.Retrieved fromhttps://www.nbrii.com/employee-survey-white-papers/the-truth- about-job-satisfaction-and-friendships-at-work/
Nunnally, J.C. (1978).Psychometric Theory. New York: McGraw-Hill.
Osad, I.O., & Osas, E.U. (2013). Harmonious industrial relations as a panacea for ailing enterprises in Nigeria. Journal of Asian Scientific Research, 3(3), 229-246
Pastra, A., Koufopoulos, D. K., Skintzti, V., Johansson, T., & Samac, N. (2021). Exploring trust in the boardroom: the case of Nordic region. Team Performance Management: An International Journal, ahead-of-print.
Peyrat-Guillard, D., & Glinska-Neweś, A. (2014). I Respect You and I Help You: Links Between Positive Relationships at Work and Organizational Citizenship Behaviour. Journal of Positive Management, 5(2), 82.
Podsakoff, P. M., MacKenzie, S. B., Lee, J. Y., & Podsakoff, N. P. (2003). Common method biases in behavioral research: a critical review of the literature and recommended remedies. Journal of Applied Psychology, 88(5), 879.
Porath, C. (2014). Half of employees don’t feel respected by their bosses. Harvard Business Review, 92, 87-96. Retrieved from https://hbr.org/2014/11/half-of-employees-dont-feel- respected-by-their-bosses
Rego, A., e Cunha, M. P., & Giustiniano, L. (2021). Are Relationally Transparent Leaders More Receptive to the Relational Transparency of Others? An Authentic Dialog Perspective. Journal of Business Ethics,169, 1-15.
Ringle, C. M., Wende, S., & Becker, J. M. (2015). SmartPLS 3. Boenningstedt. Germany:
SmartPLS GmbH. Retrieved from http://www.smartpls.com.
Rudolph, C. W., Katz, I. M., Ruppel, R., & Zacher, H. (2020). A systematic and critical
review of research on respect in leadership. The Leadership Quarterly, 32(1), 101492.
Rydstedt, L. W., Stansfeld, S. A., Head, J., & Woodley-Jones, D. (2012). Quality of workplace
social relationships and perceived health. Psychological Reports, 110(3), 781-790.
Scandura, T. A., & Graen, G. B. (1984). Moderating effects of initial leader–member exchange
status on the effects of a leadership intervention. Journal of Applied Psychology, 69(3), 428.
Tabachnick, B.G. and Fidell, L.S. (2001), Computer-Assisted Research Design and Analysis.
Boston: Pearson Education
Tafvelin, S., Keisu, B. I., & Kvist, E. (2020). The prevalence and consequences of intragroup conflicts for employee well-being in women-dominated work. Human Service Organizations: Management, Leadership & Governance, 44(1), 47-62.
Van der Kam, N. A., Janssen, O., van der Vegt, G. S., & Stoker, J. I. (2014). The role of vertical conflict in the relationship between leader self-enhancement and leader performance. The Leadership Quarterly, 25(2), 267-281.
Van Woerkom, M., & Van Engen, M. L. (2009). Learning from conflicts? The relations between task and relationship conflicts, team learning and team performance. European
Wang, F., Cao, R., Wu, S., & Chen, M. (2021). Differential effects of interpersonal relationships across functions on product and service innovation. Marketing Intelligence & Planning, ahead-of-print.
Watson, G. W., Scott, D., Bishop, J., & Turnbeaugh, T. (2005). Dimensions of interpersonal relationships and safety in the steel industry. Journal of Business and Psychology, 19(3), 303- 318.
Weerasinghe, W. M. D. N., & Batagoda, C. K. (2018). The Impact of Psychological Contract on Employer-Employee Relationship in Operational Level Employees in Selected Two Apparel Companies in Anurdhapura, Sri Lanka. Human Resource Management Journal, 6(1), 13.